What is HTML?

HTML Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. Tim Berners who invented HTML in 1989, worked at CERN for that time period. Tim Berners-Lee wanted to find a way to share information over long distance for researchers. It was even possible to share information but it had limitations.

HTML DOCUMENT STRUCTURE:

<!Doctype>It defines the document type and version of HTML
<HTML>It defines the root element of the document
<head>It contains the details about the document like page title, external source links, author name, etc.
<body>It contains the data which is visible over page to user.
Example
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en"> 
  <head> 
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="Index.css" /> 
    <title>Title</title> 
  </head> 
  <body>
    <h3>Welcome to Codejn</h3>
    <p>Complete HTML Tutorial</p>
  </body>
</html>
Example Explanation
  • <!DOCTYPE html> : In this declaration, defines that it’s html document and using html 5 version.
  • <head> : In this declaration, we defined about page, page title, and external sources like “index.css” to link external CSS (Cascade Style Sheet) for designing.
  • <body> : In this declaration, we declared all the visible content over page.
  • <h3> : In this declaration, we created a heading tag that displays the text “Welcome to Codejn” in an Heading 3 (H3 ) sized.
  • <p> : In this declaration, we created a paragraph tag that displays the text “Complete HTML Tutorial”.

History of HTML

Version Year Benefits Limitations
HTML 1.0 1989 Enable Linking of documents using hyperlinks Limited Tag support and no multimedia capabilities.
HTML 2.0 1995 Enable Table, image maps and added support for international character sets that made to display text in different languages. Limited in terms of layout and styling capabilities.
HTML 3.2 1997 Enable to add stylesheet to create consist layout across multiple pages. And enabled support for forms. Still had limitations in layout and styling compared to print designs.
HTML 4.0 1997 Enabled frames, and DOM and upgraded tables and forms Still had limitations in layout and styling compared to print designs.
HTML 4.01 1999 Improved Reliability and consistency. Did not introduce any new feature.
XHTML 1.0 2000 Improved capabilities with XML Required stricter syntax and coding practices.
XHTML 1.1 2001 Same as XHTML 1.1 But Stricter Stricter syntax made it less flexible for web developers
XHTML Basic 1.0 2000 Designed for devices with limited processing power and memory Limited functionality compared to full XHTML
XHTML Basic 1.1 2001 Same as XHTML Basic 1.0, but with more features Still limited compared to full XHTML
HTML5 2014 Multimedia support, improved semantics, and new form elements Backward compatibility issues with older browsers and website
HTML5.1 2016 Improved semantics, accessibility, and security Limited adoption due to slow browser support
HTML5.2 2017 Improved support for accessibility, internationalization, and media Limited adoption due to slow browser support
HTML 5.3 Currently Under Development

Features of HTML

  • Structure and Semantics : HTML provides a structured way to organize content on web pages. It uses tags to define elements such as headings, paragraphs, lists, images, and links. These tags structure the content and convey semantic meaning, making it easier for search engines and assistive technologies to understand the page's content.
  • Cross-Platform Compatibility : HTML documents can create websites or web pages that can accessed and visible on different devices and platforms like desktop computers, laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Compatibility is important for a better user experience, this way users can enjoy the same experience no matter what device they're using.
  • Hyperlinking : Hyperlinks are one of the most important features of HTML, they allow users to navigate between different web pages and resources. With the help of HTML, hyperlinks are created using the <a> (anchor tag), which makes it possible to link other pages within the same website or external website. Developing connected web content and facilitating information flow is a crucial feature.
  • Multimedia Integration : HTML supports the integration of multimedia elements such as images, videos, and audio files into web pages. To create dynamic and interactive web pages, developers can embed multimedia content directly into the HTML structure with the help of some HTML media tags such as the <img> tag for images, the <audio> tag for audio files, and the <video> tag for videos.
  • Forms and Input Elements : It is used to assemble user input on websites, from simple contact forms to complex data submission interfaces. HTML provides a range of form elements such as text fields, checkboxes, radio buttons, dropdown menus, and buttons. These elements, combined with attributes like action and method, enable developers to create interactive forms for collecting user data.
  • Metadata and SEO : HTML includes tags for defining metadata, such as page titles, descriptions, and keywords. It is crucial for search engine optimization (SEO) because it helps search engines understand the relevance and context of web pages. HTML's semantic markup, combined with well-crafted metadata, improves a website's visibility and ranking in search engine results.
  • Accessibility Features : A website that is easy to use by all people of all abilities, is a vital characteristic of web development. HTML provides some features like alt attributes for images, label elements for form inputs, and semantic markup for content structure, to improve usability and scope to make the website user-friendly.
  • Modularization and Versioning : HTML is a part of the largest ecosystem of web standards governed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Each version of HTML introduces new features and makes periodic updates and improvements. Web apps can be updated centrally on the server, allowing users to access the latest version without manually updating their software.
  • Extensibility and Integration : Developers can take advantage of a wide range of capabilities provided by HTML without any additional effort. They can create their own HTML elements and attributes or use frameworks and libraries to enable seamless integration with other technologies and tools, improving the functionality and interactivity of web applications.